Side scan sonar (also sometimes called side scan sonar, sidescan sonar, side scan sonar search, side-looking sonar, side scan sonar images, from images to sound and sound classification below) is a category of sonar system used to efficiently create an image of large areas of seabed. Can be used for maritime archaeological studies with samples of the seabed is able to provide an understanding of the differences in materials and type of texture of the seafloor. Sidescan sonar images is also a tool commonly used to detect objects of debris and other obstacles on the seabed that can be hazardous to shipping or installation of the seabed for oil and gas industry. Furthermore, the condition of cables and pipelines on the seafloor can be investigated with sidescan sonar. Sidescan data are often acquired along bathymetric soundings and sub-profiles database, providing a view of the surface structure of the seabed. Side scan sonar is also used for fisheries research, dredging operations and environmental studies. It also has military applications including mine detection.
Sidescan sonar emits uses a conical or fan-shaped pulses to the seafloor through a wide angle perpendicular to the path of the probe through the water, which can be attached to a surface ship or submarine , or mounted on the hull. The intensity of the acoustic reflections of the seabed in this fan-shaped beam is recorded in a series of cuts backing track. When you sew along the direction of motion, these segments form an image of the seabed during scanning (coverage width) of the beam. The sound frequencies used in side-scan sonar usually between 100 and 500 kHz, higher frequencies yield better resolution, but less comprehensive.
The first side-scan sonar uses a single transducer beam cone. Then, the units are made with two transducers to cover both sides. The transducers are good in a helmet-mounted package or two packages on each side of the ship. Then the transducers developed fan-shaped beams to produce a better "sonogram" or image of Sonar. To further approach deepwater sidescan transducers were placed in a "dome" and drawn by a "tow."
Sonar (sound navigation and Ranging) is a technique that uses sound waves to detect and locate objects underwater. Side Scan Sonar is a specific type of sonar used the image of the seabed topography.
Sidescan sonar, also known as side looking sonar and side scan sonar images, often towed from a research vessel and has the ability to capture hundreds of meters from the sea floor at each side of the ship in motion. Quality photographic images produced by side-scan sonar, along with its ability to map large areas of seafloor quickly make it an essential piece of kit for anyone who needs high-definition images of the seabed.
Side scan sonar is widely used for many commercial, military and leisure. Examples include search and rescue operations, pipelines and surveys put the cable, mine detection, finding fish, wreck hunting, recovery of the victims drowned, marine archeology and geological studies.
Sidescan sonars transmit a narrow range acoustic pulse (ping) perpendicular to its direction of travel. As the acoustic pulse travels outward from the side scan sonar, seabed objects and others reflect something of the sound energy in the direction of the probe (known as backscatter). The travel time of the returned pulse is recorded along with its amplitude as a time series and sent to a console of the superstructure for the interpretation and display. The top of the console data points together successive pulses, creating a long continuous image of the seabed such as sidescan sonar towed from a survey vessel.
The numbers shown in the diagram ...
Deep within the acoustic path.
Vertical beam angle.
Adjustment range in the software (maximum range acoustic).
Swath width across the seabed.
Depth of tow side scan sonar.
Port and starboard channel separation.
Horizontal beam width.